1. American Gastroenterological Association, Bharucha AE, Dorn SD, Lembo A, Pressman A. American Gastroenterological Association medical position statement on constipation. Gastroenterology.2013; 144:211-217.
  2. AlphaImpact Rx Data 2015
  3. Stoltz R, Weiss LM, Merkin DH, Cleveland MVB, Pelham RW. An efficacy and consumer preference study of polyethylene glycol 3350 for the treatment of constipation in regular laxative users. Home Health Care Consultant. 2001;8:21-26.
  4. Cleveland MVB, Flavin DP, Ruben RA, Epstein RM, Clark GE. New polyethylene glycol laxative for treatment of constipation in adults: a randomized, double- blind, placebo-controlled study. South Med J. 2001;94(5):478-481.
  5. Data on file. Bayer Healthcare.
  6. DiPalma JA, Cleveland MVB, McGowan J, Herrera JL. An open-label study of chronic polyethylene glycol laxative use in chronic constipation. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2007;25:703-708.
  7. DiPalma JA, Cleveland MVB, McGowan J, Herrera JL. A randomized, multicenter, placebo-controlled trial of polyethylene glycol laxative for chronic treatment of chronic constipation. Am J Gastroenterol. 2007;102:1436-1441.
  8. DiPalma JA, Cleveland MVB, McGowan J, Herrera JL. A randomized, multicenter comparison of polyethylene glycol laxative and tegaserod in treatment of patients with chronic constipation. Am J Gastroenterol. 2007;102:1964-1971.
  9. DiPalma JA, DeRidder PH, Orlando RC, Kolts BE, Cleveland MVB. A randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter study of the safety and efficacy of a new polyethylene glycol laxative. Am J Gastroenterol. 2000;95(2):446-450.
  10. DiPalma JA, MacRae DH, Reichelderfer M, Hamilton JW, Cleveland MVB. Braintree polyethylene glycol (PEG) laxative for ambulatory and long-term care facility constipation patients: report of randomized, cross-over trials. Online J Dig Health. 1999;1(2):1-10.
  11. Tran LC, DiPalma JA. Lack of lasting effectiveness of PEG 3350 laxative treatment of constipation. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2005;39:600-602.
  12. DiPalma JA, Cleveland MVB, McGowan J, Herrera JL. A comparison of polyethylene glycol laxative and placebo for relief of constipation from constipating medications. South Med J. 2007;100(11):1085-1090.
  13. American College of Gastroenterology Chronic Constipation Task Force. An evidence-based approach to the management of chronic constipation in North America. Am J Gastroenterol. 2005;100(suppl 1):S1-S4.
  14. Ramkumar D, Rao SS. Efficacy and safety of traditional medical therapies for chronic constipation: systematic review. Am J Gastroenterol. 2005;100(4):936-971.
  15. Lee-Robichaud H, Thomas K, Morgan J, Nelson RL. Lactulose versus polyethylene glycol for chronic constipation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010;7(7):CD007570.
  16. Krishnamurthy S, Shuffler M, Hirschmann J. Constipation. University of Washington Division of Gastroenterology. http://uwgi.org/guidelines/ch_05/CH05TXT.HTM. Accessed September 22, 2015.
  17. Locke GR, Pemberton JH, Phillips SF. American Gastroenterological Association Medical Position Statement: guidelines on constipation. Gastroenterology. 2000;119(6):1761-1766.
  18. Sonnenberg A, Koch TR. Epidemiology of constipation in the United States. Dis Colon Rectum. 1989;32(1):1-8.
  19. National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse. Constipation. NIH Publication No. 07-2754, 2007. http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/constipation. September 22, 2015.
  20. Hsieh C. Treatment of constipation in older adults. Am Fam Physician. 2005;72(11):2277-2284.
  21. Kristalose ® (lactulose) For Oral Solution full Prescribing Information, Cumberland Pharmaceuticals. May 2008.
  22. Medline Plus. Lactulose. US National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health. http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/meds/a682338.html. Accessed May 29, 2009.
  23. Kyle G. Constipation: an examination of the current evidence. Continence UK. 2008;2(3):61-67.
  24. Higgins PDR, Johanson JF. Epidemiology of constipation in North America: a systematic review. Am J Gastroenterol. 2004;99(4):750-759.
  25. Vlitos ALP, Davies GJ. Bowel function, food intake and the menstrual cycle. Nutr Res Rev. 1996;9(11):111-134.
  26. Jung H-K, Kim D-Y, Moon I-H. Effects of gender and menstrual cycle on colonic transit time in healthy subjects. Korean J Intern Med. 2003;18:181-186.
  27. Bradley CS, Kennedy CM, Turcea AM, Rao SS, Nygaard IE. Constipation in pregnancy: prevalence, symptoms, and risk factors. Obstet Gynecol. 2007;110(6):1351-1357.
  28. Gjerdingen DK, Froberg DG, Chaloner KM, McGovern PM. Changes in women's physical health during the first postpartum year. Arch Fam Med. 1993;2(3):277-283.
  29. Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet: Iron. Office of Dietary Supplements. National Institutes of Health. http://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/iron. Accessed October 31, 2011.
  30. Harvard Health Publications. Harvard Medical School. What you need to know about calcium. Harv Health Lett. April 2003. http://www.health.harvard.edu/newsweek/What_you_need_to_know_about_calcium.htm. Accessed December 6, 2010.
  31. Bailey RL, Dodd KW, Goldman JA, et al. Estimation of total usual calcium and vitamin D intakes in the United States. J Nutr. 2010;140:817-822.
  32. Oliveira SC, Pinto-Neto AM, Conde DM, et al. Constipation in postmenopausal women. [Article in Portuguese]. Rev Assoc Med Bras. 2005;51
  33. MiraLAX Product Label.